“በመጠጥ ደስታ ይገኛል ብላችሁ… መጠን አትለፋ…”

Alcoholic-drinksአልኮል መጠጥ ሱስ ራሱን የቻለ በሽታ ሲሆን ፣ ዋነኛመገለጫውም ከፍተኛ የሆነ የአልኮል መጠጥ ፍላጎት ነው፡፡በዚህም ሱስ ውስጥ ያሉ ግለሰቦች የመጠጥ ፍላጎታቸው ምንምያህል በቤተሰባቸው፣ በሥራቸውና በጤናቸው ላይ ከፍተኛ ጉዳትየሚያመጣ ቢሆንም እንኳን ለማቆም ሲቸገሩ ይታያሉ፡፡ የአልኾልጥገኝነት በእያንዳዱ ግለሰብ ላይ በተለያየ መልኩ ይገለጣል፡፡ ነገርግን ሁሉንም የአልኾል ሱሶች አንድ የሚያደርጓቸውን ተመሳሳይምልክቶችንም ማውጣት ይቻላል፡፡

እነዚህም፡- ለመጠጣት የሚያሳሳ ከፍተኛ ፍላጎት ፣ ምንምያህል ጉዳት ቢያደርስባቸውም መጠጥን በተመለከተ ራስንየመግታትም ሆነ የመቆጣጠር ችግር፣ አንዴ ከጀመሩ በኋላ ደግለማቆም ያለመቻል፣ እንዲሁም ደግሞ አልክኾል ከሰውነታቸው ጋር ከመለማመዱ የተነሣ በአንድ ጊዜ ለማቆም በሚምክሩበት ወይም በሚገደዱበትወቅት የሰውነት እንቅስቃሴ መስተጓጎል ሊከሰት ይችላል፡፡ ከእነዚህም ውስጥ የሆድ መረበሽ፣ የሰውነት ላብ መጨመር የሰውነት መንቀጥቀጥ እናየፍርሃት ስት መረጠር ተጠቃሽ ናቸው፡፡

የአልክሆል ጥገኝነት በዓለማችን ላይ ከፍተኛ ጉዳት ያመጣ እና በብዙሃኑ የህብረተሰብ ክፍል ላይ የተንሰራፋ በሽታ ነው፡፡ ብዙ ጥናቶችእንደሚያሳዩትም ከከፍተኛ ባለስልጣናት እስከ ቀን ሠራተኛ ባሉ ግለሰቦች ላይ ችግሩ ይከሰታል፡፡ የአልክሆል መጠጥ አጠቃቀም በየግለሰቡ ባህሪ፣የኑሮ ሁኔታ፣ የማህበረሰብ ባህልና የሐይማኖር ሁኔታዎች ይወሰናል፡፡ አንዳንድ ሰዎች መጠጥን በጭራሽ አይጠጡም፡፡ ሌሎች ሰዎች ደግሞ እንደቋሚየመዝናኛ አማራጭ በመውሰድ አዘውትረው ይጠጣሉ፡፡ ከእነዚህ ሁሉ በተለየ በአልክሆል ሱሰኝነት ሥር   የወደቁት ግን ውስጣቸውን ለማሳረፍ እናሳይጠጡ የሚከሰቱትን ችግሮች ለመሸሽ ዘወትር ይጠጣሉ፡፡

የአለም የጤና ድርጅት (WHO) እንዳስታወቀው ከሆነ በዓለም ላይ 76 ሚሊዮን የሚጠጉ ሰዎች ከአልክሆል ጋር ተያያዥነት ባላቸው በሽታዎችይሰቃያሉ፡፡ ከእነዚህም መካከል አሜሪካ ከጠቅላላው ህዝቧ 15% የሚሆነው ከአልክሆል ተጠቃሚነት በሚከሰት ጠንቅ ተጎጂ ነው፡፡

 

ሩሲያ ብንመለከት ደግሞ በሀገሪቱ ከሚከሰቱ ሞት መካከል 1/3 በቀጥታም ሆነ በተዘወዋሪ ከአልክሆል አወሳሰድ ጋር የተያያዘ ነው፡፡ የዚህንምጉዳይ አሳሳቢነት የሀገሪቱ መንግስት በመረዳት የመጠጥ አምራች ፋብሪካዎችን፣ መሸጫ ቤቶችንና መሳሰሉትን በመዝጋት ያደረገው ሙከራ ፋይዳ ቢስከመሆኑም ባሻገር በተቃራኒው ህገወጥ የመጠጥ ዝውውር እንዲኖርና ሰዎችም የአልክሆል ጥገኝነታቸውን በድብቅ እንዲያጣቱፋ በር ከፋች ሆኗል፡፡  እንደጃፓን የመሳሰሉ የእስያ ሀገራትን ብንመለከት ደግሞ የመጠጥ ሱሰኝነት ችግር ከግለሰብ ደረጃ አልፎ ማህበረሰቡንም ከፍተኛ ሁኔታአቃውሶታል፡፡ በእነዚህ ሀገራት አልክሆል መጠጣት ከመዝናኛነት አልፎ ከሥራ ሂደትም ውስጥ እንደ አንዱ አካል ለመወሰድ በቅቷል፡፡ እንዲያውምበቢሮ ውስጥ ከሚደረጉት በላይ ትላልቅ ጉዳዮች ውሳኔ የሚሰጣቸው በመጠጥመሸጫ ቤቶች ውስጥ ነው፡፡ የመጠጥ ግብዣ ሲቀርብለት ይለፈኝ ያለሠራተኛ ደግሞ የሥራ ዕድገትም አብሮ እንደሚያልፈው ነው መረጃዎች የሚያሳዩን፡፡

 

በሁሉም ዓይነት አልክሆል መጠጦች ውስጥ (Ethanol) የተሰኘው ኬሚካል (ንጥረ-ነገርየሚገኝ ሲሆን አልክሆልን በምንወስድበትም ጊዜ ይህ ንጥረ-ነገር አብሮ ወደ ሰውነታችንበመግባት ሆዳችንና አንጀታችን ላይ ያርፋል፡፡ በዚህም ስፍራ አልክሆል ከደማችን ጋርበመቀላቀል ወደመላው ሰውነታችንመ ይሰራጫል፡፡

ይህም አልክሆል የአንጎል አሠራር ላይ ተፅእኖ ያመጣል፡፡ በዚህ በሰውነታችን ውስጥየሚገባው የአልክሆል መጠጥ በጨመረ ቁጥር ተፅእኖውም ይበልጥ ይጨምራል፡፡ አልክሆልየተቀላቀለበት ደም በጨጓራ በኩል በሚያልፍበት ወቅት በጨጓራ ውስጥ ያሉ ኢንዛይሞችአልክሆሉን በመስበር ጉዳት እንዳያደርስ አድርጎ ወደ ቆሻሻት በመለወጥ ከሰውነታችንእንዲወገድ ያደርጋል፡፡ ነገር ግን የአልክሆል ወደ ሰውነት ውስጥ መግባት በጨጓራችንኢንዛይም ተሰባብሮ ከሰውነታችን ከሚወገድበት ፍጥነት በላይ ከሆነ ለስካር ምክንያትይሆናል፡፡

አነስተኛ የሆነ አልክሆል ድካምንና ጭንቀትን ለማሰወገድ ፣ የምግብ ፍላጊት ለመጨመርናየህመም ስትን ለማስታገስ ጠቃሚ ነው፡፡ ከፍተኛ የሆነ የአልክሆል መጠን ግን የአስተሳሰብ ችሎታን ያዛባል፣ የራስ መተማመንን ከልክ ባለይበማድረግ፣ ፍርሃትንና የጥፋተኝነት ስሜትን ያስወግዳል፡፡ አንድ ሰው በመጠጥ ስካር ደረጃ በሚደርስበት ወቅት እስጨናቂና አሳፋሪ ስሜቶች በሙሉእየቀነሱ ይመጣሉ፡፡ ይበልጥ በጨመረ ቁጥር ደግሞ ንግግሩ በጣም ጮክ ያለ እና የተሳሰረ እየሆነ ይመጣል፣ የውሳኔ አቅም እና ሰውነትመገጣጠሚያዎች እንቅስቃሴ ይስተጓጎላል፡፡ በዚህም ከቀጠለ የሰውነት እንቅስቃሴ ሙሉ በሙሉ የማቆም እና ራስን የመሳት ደረጃ ላይ ሊደርስይችላል፡፡ ጫን ካለ ደግሞ እስከ ሞት ሊያደርስ ይችላል፡፡ አልክሆል ሱስነት ጉዳትን የሚያስከትለው ግለስቦች ብቻ ሳይሆን በዙሪው ያሉትን ግለሰቦችከዚያም ባለፈ ማህበረሰቡን ነው፡፡

ከእነዚህም በተጨማሪ የአልክሆል ጉዳት በተዘዋዋሪ መልኩ ሌሎች ማህበራዊ እና የጤና እክሎች መሰረት ነው፡፡ ከዚያም አልፎ በኢኮኖሚውም ላይየራሱ የሆነ ተፅእኖ ያለው ሲሆን፣ በአሜሪካ ብቻ በየዓመቱ 185 ሚሊዮን ዶላር ያህል ክስረትን እንዲሁም ያለዕድሜ ሞትን ያስከትላል፡፡

የጤና ባለሙያዎች የአልክሆል ሱሰኝነት ሂደትን በሦስት ክፍለው ይመለከቱታል እነዚህም፡-

1.      ማህበራዊ ጠጪነት፡- በዚህ ምድብ ውስጥ ብዙ ሰዎችን የምናገኝ ሲሆን፣ እነዚህም ሰዎች አልክሆል መጠጥን የሚወስዱት በተለያዩ አጋጣሚዎችሲሆን ማህበራዊ ስብስቦችን ፣ በዓላትንና ልዩ ዝግጅቶችን የተመረኮዘ ልምድ ነው ያላቸው፡፡ በዚህ ጊዜ ወስጥ የጠጨው ግለሰብ ዋና ዓላማ መጠጡላይ ሳይን ማህበራዊ ግንኙነቱ ላይ ያተኮረ ነው፡፡

2.      መደበኛ ጠጪነት፡- ከመጀመሪያ ቀጣዩ ደረጃ በማለፍ አልክሆል በተደጋጋሚ የመውሰድ ባህሪን ያዳብሩ ናቸው፡፡ እነዚህመ ሰዎች አብዛኛውን ጊዜመዝናኛዎቻቸው መጠጥን ከመጠቀም ጋር የተያያዙ ይሆናሉ፡፡ በዚህም ወቅት አዘወትረው አልክሆል መጠጥ መውሰዳቸው የትኛውንም ያህልማህበራዊ ህይወታቸው ላይ ተፅእኖ ቢያመጣባቸውም ከመጠጣት አይቆጠቡም፡፡ አዘውትረውም “መጠጥን ማቆም ከፈለግኩ እችላለሁ” ሲሉይደመጣሉ፣ ለማቆም ግን ፍላጎቱ የላቸውም፡፡

3.      የመጠጥ ጥገኝነት፡- ከሁለተኛው ምድብ ከተመለከትናቸው ሰዎ መካከል ደግሞ የተወሰኑት በዚህ ልማዳቸው ሲቀጥሉ ወደ መጨረሻና በበሽታነትሊታይ በሚችለው የመጠጥ ጥገኝነት ሱስ ላይ ይወድቃሉ፡፡ እነዚህም ግለሰቦች የመጠጣት ባሪያቸው ከእነርሱ ቁጥጥር በላይ የሆነባቸውናየሚጠጡትም ለመዝናናት አሊያም  ፈልገውት ሳይሆን እንደ ግዴታ ነው፡፡

የአልክሆል ሱስ መነሻው ምንድነው?

አንዳንድ ጥናቶች እንደሚያመለክቱት የአልክሆል ሱሰኝነት በአንዳንድ በቤተሰብ አካለት ላይ በተደጋጋሚ ይታያል፡፡ ነገር ግን ይሄ መነሻው በዘርይሁን ተመሳሳይ በሆነ የመኖሪያ አካባቢ መኖር አልተረጋገጠም፡፡ አካባቢያዊ ሁኔታዎች ወደ መጠጥ ሱስ ለመግባት ትልቅ ሚና አላቸው፡፡

ከእነዚህም ውስጥ በልጅነት ዕድሜ የጓደኛ ግፊት፣ የቤተሰብ አስረዳደግ፣ አልክሆልን በተመለከተ ማህበራዊና ባህላዊ አስተሳሰቦች ፣የኑሮ ጭንቀት እናአልካሆልን በአቅራቢያ አልክሆል ሱሰኝነት ጉዳት የሚያስከትለው ግለሰቡን ብቻ ሳይሆን በዙሪያው ያሉትን ግለሰቦች ከዚያም ባለፈ ማህበረሰቡንነው፡፡ ከእነዚህም በተጨማሪ የአልክሆል ጉዳት በተዘዋዋሪ መልኩ ሌሎች ማህራዊ እና የጤና እክሎች መሠረት ነው፡፡ ከዚያም አልፎ በኢኮኖሚውምላይ የራሱ የሆነ ተፅእኖ ያለው  ሲሆን፣ በአሜሪካ ብቻ በየዓመቱ 185 ሚሊዮን ዶላር ያህል ክስረትን ያስከትላል

የማግኘት አጋጣሚ ተጠቃሾ ናቸው፡፡ እንዲሁም ቀደም ባለ ዕድሜ አልክሆል መጠጣት ዘግይቶ ከመጀመሩ ይልቅ ለሱሰኝነት ያጋልጣል፡፡ ሌላውደግሞ የመጠጥ ሱስ ያለባቸው ግለሰቦች ከዚህ ባህሪያቸው የተነሣ በሰዎች ዘንድ የሚያገኙት ተቀባይነት ጥሩ ስለማይን ሱሰኝነታቸውን ሲክዱይታያሉ፡፡

በእርግጥ የተወሰነ መጠን ያለው የአልክሆል አጠቃቀም ለጤንነት ተስማሚ እና እንደ ለልብ ህመም የመሳሰሉትን ችግሮች  ለመከለካልቢጠቅምም ተከታታይ እና ከፍተኛ የሆነ የአልክሆል አወሣሰድ የሰውነታችንን የኬሚካል ስርዓት በእጅጉ ያዛባዋል፡፡ ከፍተኛ አልክሆል ተጠቃሚዎችየምግብ ፍላጎታቸው አነስተኛ ሲሆን ለሰውነታቸውም የሚያስፈልገውንም ካሎሪ ከአልክሆል መጠጥ ብቻ ያገኛሉ፡፡ አልካሆል ምንም ያህል ከፍተኛየሆነ ካሎሪ ይዘት ያለው ቢሆንም ሌሎች ከምግ ማገኘት ያለብንን የቫይታሚንና ሚኒራ የመሳሰሉትን ንጥረ ነገሮች ስለሚያካትት ለጉዳትእንደረጋለን፡፡ ከእነዚህም ውስጥ የጨጓራ በሽታ ፣ የልብ አጥንት በአግባቡ አለመሥራት. ከፍተኛ የደም ግፊት ጥቂቶቹ ናቸው፡፡ የአልክሆል ሱሰኛመሆን በጤና ላይ የሚያስከትለው ጉዳተ መጠጥ ሲወስዱ ብቻ ሣይሆን ለማቆም በሚሞክሩበትም ጊዜ የተለያዩ ዓይነት ችግሮች (Withdrawal symptoms) አሉ፡፡

ከእነዚህም ውስጥ የድብርት ስሜት፣ ግራ የመጋባት፣ የእንቅልፍ ማጣት፣ አስፈሪ እሳቤአዊ ምስሎች እና የመሳሰሉት ናቸው፡፡ በእርግዝና ውስጥ ያሉሴቶችን ስንመለከት ደግሞ ጉዳቱ ከእርሷ ባለፈ ህፃኑ ላይም ይታያል፡፡ በውልደት ወቅት ልጁ ላይ ግድፈት ከማስከተሉም በላይ ልጁ ላይ ግድፈትከማስከተሉም በላይ ልጁ ከተወለደ በኋላ ከባህሪ ችግር እስከ አዕምሮ ዘገምተኝነት ድረስ ከፍተኛ የጤና እክል ሊያጋጥመው ይችላል፡፡

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