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ማጨስ ክልክል ነው!!!

ውድ አንባቢያን በመቀጠል ሌላውንና በጤናችንና በማህበራዊ ሕይወታችንከፍተኛ የሆነ ጉዳት ስለሚያመጣው፣የሲጋራ ሱስ በሰፊው እንመለከታለን፡፡ እ.ኤ.አ እስከ 1940 ዎቹ ድረስ ሲጋራን ማጨስ ምንም ጉዳት እንደሌለውናእንዲያውም የቅንጦት እና ክብር መገለጫ ተደርጎ ይታስ ነበር፡፡ በኋላ ላይ ግንበተደረጉ የላብራቶሪ ፍተሸዎች እንደተረጋገጠው ከአንድ ሲጋራ የሚወጣው ጭስወደ 4ሺህ ዓይነት ኬሚካል ንጥረ-ነገሮችን የያዘ፣ ከእንዚህም ውስጥ አብዛኛዎቹመርዛማነት ያላቸውና 43 ያህል ደግሞ ካንሰርን ሊያመጡ የሚችሉ መሆኑን ነው፡፡ የትምባሆ ቅጠል ማጨስ የተጀመረው በቀድሞዎቹ የአሜሪካ ነዋሪዎች ዘንድ ነው፡፡በ16ኛው ክፍለ ዘመን ነዋሪዎቹ የትምባሆን ቅጠል በፒፓ (Pipe) መሳይ ዕቃ ሲያጨሱ የተመለከቱት አውሮፓውያን የዚህን ቅጠል ተፈላጊነትበመገንዘብ ትላልቅ የትምባሆ ማሳዎችን በማስፋፋት ለአውሮፓ ገበያ ማቅረብ ጀመሩ፡፡ ይህንንም ተከትሎ በ 17ኛው ክፍለ ዘመን ሲጋራን ማጨስከአውሮፓውያን ባህል ጋር በቀላሉ ለመዋሃድ ቻለ፡፡ በዚያን ወቅት በአብዛኛው ህብረተሰብ ውስጥ የነበረው አስተሳሰብ ሲጋራ ጭንቀትን የሚያስወግድ እና አነቃቂ እንደሆነ ነበር፡፡ እንዲያውምበሁለተኛው የዓለም ጦርነት ወቅት የአሜሪካን መንግሥት ለወታደሮቹ ከሚያከፋፍላቸው የዕለት ራሽን ውስጥም ሲጋራ አንዱ ነበር፡፡ በኋላ ላይ ግንየህክምና ባለሙያዎች በአገልግሎት መስጫ ሆስፒታሎቻቸው የሳንባ ካንሰርና የመሳሰሉት በሽታዎች ሕሙማን መብዛት ሲያጋጥማቸው ባደረጓቸውምርምሮች የሲጋራ አጫሾች ከማያጨሱት የበለጠ ለካንሰር እና ሌሎች ተመሳሳይ እክሎች የመጠቃት ዕድላቸው ሰፊ መሆኑን ለማረጋገጥ ችለዋል፡፡ በሲጋራ ውስጥ ብዙ ዓይነት ንጥረ -ነገሮች የሚገኙ ሲሆን ዋነኞቹ ታር፣ ካርቦን ሞኖኦክሳይድና ኒኮቲን የተባሉትን ናቸው፡፡ ከእነዚህም ውስጥ ለሱስአስጣዥነት ዋናኛ ሚና የሚጫወተው ኒኮቲን የተባለው ንጥረ-ነገር ነው፡፡ ኒኮቲን ማት በትምባሆ ቅጠል ውስጥ የሚገኝ ፈሳሽ ንጥረ- ነገር ሲሆን አነቃቂነትና ሱስ የማስያዝ ኃይል አለው፡፡ ከቅጠል ውስጥ በሚወጣበት ጊዜምንም ዓይነት ቀለም የሌለው ቢሆንም አየር ሲነካው ወዲያውኑ የቡኒነት ቀለም ይዛል፡፡ ኒኮቲን በጣም መርዛማነት ያለው ከመሆኑ የተነሳ የተለያዩተባይ ማጥፊያ ኬሚካሎች ውስጥ እንደአንድ ግብአት በመሆን ያገለግላል፡፡ በሲጋ ውስጥ የሚገኘው የኒኮቲን መጠን አነስተኛ ነው፡፡ ከእነዚህም ውስጥ አብዛኛው ነው፡፡ ከእዚሀም ውስጥ አብዛኛው እሳቱ ፍም ውስጥጠሚቃጠል ስለሆነ ወደ ሰውነታችን የሚገባው በጣም ጥቂቱ ብቻ ነው፡፡ ነገር ግን ተጠቃሚውን ሱሰኛ ለማድረግ ከበቂ በላይ ነው፡፡ አንድ ሰው ሲጋራን በሚያጨስበት ጊዜ የኒኮቲን ንጥረ-ነገር በቀጥታ ወደ ሳንባው በመጓዝ ከደሙ ጋር ይቀላቀላል፡፡ ከዚያም በልብ አማካኝነትተረጭቶ ወደ አንጎል ይጓዛል፡፡ ይሄ ሁሉ ሂደት ግን የሚፈጀው ጊዜ ሰባት ሰኮንድ ብቻ ነው፡፡ ቢኮቲን ወደ አንጎል  ከደረሰ በኋላ በአጫሹ ውስጥጊዜዊ የሆነ የእርካታ ስሜትን የሚገጥሩ ኬሚካሎችን በመርጨት እርካታን ስሜት ይሰጠዋል፡፡ ነገር ግን ይሄ የእርካታ ስሜት ለአጭር ጊዜ የሚቆይ እናበደቂቃዎች ውስጥ የኒኮቲኑ መጠን ስለሚቀንስ የእርካታ ስሜቱ እንደገና ይቀንሳል፡፡ በዚህም ምክንያት ሌላ ሲጋራን ለመለኮስ ይገደዳል፡፡ የጊዜክፍተቱ ደግሞ በሱሰኝነት መጠኑ ልክ እያነሰ በመምጣት መቸረሻ ላይ ሲጋራ ከአፋ መነጠል እስኪሳነው ድረስ በሱሱ ይጠመዳል፡፡ ሲጋራን ማጨስ በሰውነት ላይ የተለያዩ ለውጦችን ይፈጥራል፡፡ ከእነዚህም ውስጥ አድሬናሊን (Adrenealline) መዘውር በመጨመር አነቃቂሆርሞኖችን መፍጠር፣ የልብ ምት መጨመር. የምግብ ፍላጎት መቀነስ፣ የማስመለስና መሳሰሉት ስሜቶች ጥቂቶቹ ናቸው፡፡ ሲጋራን ለማቆምበሚሞከርበት ጊዜ ጎጂ የሆኑ ምልክቶች በሰውነት ላይ ይከሰታሉ፡፡ ከእነዚህም የራስ ምታት፣ የመቅበጥበጥ ስሜት እና ጭንቀትን መጥቀስ እንችላለን፡፡   ሲጋራ እና ጤና   ሰጋራ ማጨስ አብዛኞቹ ሰውነት ክፍሎቻችን ላይ ጉዳትን ያስከትላል፡፡ በሀገራችን የተደረገ ጠጨባጭ ጥናት ማግኘት ባንችልም በአሜሪካ ብቻበየዓመቱ 442 ሺህ ሰዎች ሲጋ ማጨስ በሚያስከትላቸው ጠንቆች የተነሣ ይሞታሉ፡፡ በሳንባ ካንሰር ከሚሞቱ ሰዎች መካከል ደግሞ 90 ከመቶ  ያህሉበማጨስ የተነሣ የሚሞቱ ናቸው፡፡ በተጨማሪም ኒኮቲን ኢንሱሊን የተባለውንና አላስፈላጊ የስኳር መጠንን ከሰውነታችን የሚስወግደውን የስኳርመጠን እንዳይመነጭ ስለሚያደርገው የስኳር መጠን እንዲጨምር ይሆናል፡፡ ይሄም በደም ውስጥ የስኳር መጠን መብዛት ደግሞ በተዘዋዋሪ የምግብፍላጎትን ይቀንሳል፡፡   በተጨማሪም በሲጋራ ውስጥ የሚገኙ ንጥረ ነገሮች ወደ ሰውነታችን ውስጥ በሚገቡበት ጊዜ (Monoamine oxidize) ወይንም በአጭሩ (MAO-B)የተሰኘውን ኢንዛይም በሰውነታችን ውስጥ መኖር ደግሞ ዶፓሚን የተሰኘውንና እርካታን አብዘወቶ የመፈለግ ስሜትን የሚቆጣጠር እና የሚገታ ነው፡፡ነገር ግን ሲጋራን በምናጨስበት ወቅት በውስጡ የሚገኘው ንጥረ-ነገር ይህንን (MAO-B) ኢንዛይም ስለሚጠፋ የዶፓሚን ስርጭት ያለ ተቆጣጣሪበመስፋፋት ውስጣችን አምጣ አምጣ እንዲለን ያደርጋል፡፡ በመሆኑም አጫሾች ከሌሎች የማያጨሱ ሰዎች ያነሰ  (MAO-B) ነገር ግን የበለጠዶፓሚን ባለቤት በመሆናቸው እርካታን በመፈለግ ደጋግመው እንዲያጨሱ ይገፋፋሉ፡፡ ሲጋራን የጤና ጠንቅነት በቀጥታ የሚያጨሱት ላይ ብቻሳይሆን በተዘዋዋሪ መንገድ ሲጋራውን ጭስ ወደ ሰውነታችው የሚገባውን የሚያጨሱሰዎችም (Passive Smokers) ይጎዳል፡፡ በዚህም ሳቢያ አንዳንድ ሰዎች ወደው እና ፈቅደው ሳይን በአጫሾ ዙሪያ በመገኘታቸው የተነሣ የተለያዩዓይነት የመተንፈሻ እና ከልብ ጋር የተያያዙ በሽታዎች ሰላባ ይሆናሉ፡፡  ...

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